Illinois in the Guilded Age, 1866-1896: Law and Society


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{rtlchfcs1 af0 ltrchfcs0 insrsid3872832 In December of 1869 a state constitutional
convention rewrote the document that had served as the law of Illinois since 1848. In part
the convention responded to a wave of political corruption. Every year an increasing number
of private bills, devoted to promoting specific individuals
or local interests, swamped the legislature. Determined “rings” of political insiders pillaged
the state treasury through contracts with the penitentiary and the new state industrial
university at Champaign, among others. Voters responded by demanding a rewritten
state constitution. par The new document largely forbade such
special laws. It curbed the legislature’s ability to override a governor’s veto a
s well. The constitution of 1870 also granted suffrage to African Americans in Illinois,
in keeping with the provisions of the Fifteenth Amendment. While Union armies fought to return
the Confederacy to the Union and, ultimately, destroy the institution o
f slavery, African Americans in Illinois had
not enjoyed the franchise. Despite this constitution’s provision, and the legislature’s rapid ratification
of the Amendment, many Illinoisians continued to resist any notion of black civil rights
or social equal ity. Democrats often continued to portray
Republicans’ drive for black equality as a threat to white supremacy. And many Republicans
themselves, while supporting the abstract notion of black equality, balked at the prospect
of its realization. par In 1896 the United States Supreme Court
validated the southern states’ attempts to circumvent the Fourteenth Amendment in the
case of }{rtlchfcs1 aiaf0 ltrchfcs0 iinsrsid3872832 Plessy v. Ferguson}{rtlchfcs1
af0 ltrchfcs0 insrsid3872832 . In this decision, the Court upheld the State
of Louisiana’s policy of segregating railroad
cars. The cars, Louisiana argued, were “separate but equal.” While the decision pertained solely
to the southern states in the narrow sense, it ultimately suggested that the Supreme Court
did not intend to uphol d
the Fourteenth Amendment at the risk of offending prevailed social mores. Justice Henry Brown
wrote: “The object of the [Fourteenth A]mendment was undoubtedly to enforce the absolute equality
of the two races before the law, but in the nature of things i
t could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color, or to enforce
social, as distinguished from political equality, or a commingling of the two races upon terms
unsatisfactory to either.” par Farmers’ economic difficulties led them
to organize and lobby for new regulations of railroads and grain merchants. The state
responded by declaring that such businesses had received state franchises or licenses
in order to further the public interest, and included their regulation
in the state constitution of 1870. When one merchant was found guilty of violating the
new laws and challenged them, the case went all the way to the United States Supreme Court.
The Court’s 1877 ruling in th e case of }{rtlchfcs1 aiaf0 ltrchfcs0
iinsrsid3872832 Munn v. Illinois}{rtlchfcs1 af0 ltrchfcs0 insrsid3872832
established government regulation of business clothed in the public interest. Illinois’
and other states’ regulatory laws governed the railroad and grain businesses for a number
of years, until the founding of the federal governme
nt’s Interstate Commerce Commission in 1887. par Railroaders and other businessmen chafed
under the rule of state regulators that were often controlled by farmers and other shippers
until the r ise of the federal commission. In 1890, the
Sherman Anti-Trust Act was passed by Congress and signed by President Benjamin Harrison.
This act, based upon Congress’ constitutional power to regulate interstate commerce, declared
illegal every contract, comb ination (in the form of trust or otherwise),
or conspiracy in restraint of interstate and foreign trade. In 1895 the United States Supreme
Court undermined the law by declaring in }{rtlchfcs1 aiaf0 ltrchfcs0 iinsrsid3872832
U.S. v. E. C. Knight Co.}{rtlchfcs1 af0 ltrchfcs0 insrsid3872832 , that the federal
government could not regulate the Knight sugar-refining monopoly because it
was a manufacturer, and manufacturing was not ‘commerce.’ This ruling delayed the federal
government’s attempt to enforce the Sherman Act until after 1900.
par The courts also played a large role in the regulation of labor relations in the Gilded
Age. As the period’s strikes became violent, businessmen and elected officials often called
in the state militia and National Guard to intimidate and disperse
the strikers. But they also turned to judges to issue injunctions prohibiting work stoppages,
boycotts, or other strike activities. The result often was to strengthen the hand of
employers and break strikes. In the case of the 1894 Pullman Strike, United
States Attorney General Richard Olney helped to break the job action by securing an injunction
against the activities of the American Railway Union.
par This Omnibus Indictment precluded Union leaders from persuading or inducing their
members, largely railroad employees, to set aside their duties as part
of a strike action. In practical terms, the injunction forbade union officials to communicate
with their membership. Federal judges Peter Grosscup and William Woods based their injunction
upon the Sherman Anti –
Trust Act and Interstate Commerce Act’s understanding of restraint of trade. Ironically, legislation
framed in hopes of checking the power of large corporations in the marketplace came to bear
upon labor organizations. Ultimately prosecutors convicted Ame
rican Railway Union leader Eugene Debs of violating this indictment, for which he served
a term in federal prison. par }pardplain ltrparql li0ri0sa200sl276slmult1widctlparwrapdefaultaspalphaaspnumfaautoadjustrightrin0lin0itap0
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