Mission Possible: Transforming Instruction in K-12


Julie Wray: Good afternoon. My name is Julie Wray, and I’m the Coordinator
for Digital Learning, Innovation and Design in the Howard County Public
Schools. We’ll do quick introductions, and then we’ll
kick in. Joe Allen: I’m Joe Allen, the Coordinator
for Learning Management System — AKA Canvas — at the Howard County
Schools. Crystal Marshall Krauss: I’m Crystal Marshall
Krauss, and I’m the Resource Teacher in Digital Learning, Innovation and Design. Julie: We’re super excited to be with you
here today, and we thank you for coming to see us at the last session. We think they saved the best for last, so
this should be it. I little bit about us. We are Howard County Schools, and here’s
our profile. We have 76 schools: 41 elementary, 20 middle,
12 high and three education centers. We have approximately 55,000 students with
8,000 staff members, and we’re situated right in-between Baltimore and DC. It’s a pretty nice area with affluent communities,
and well-rounded diversity in here. Pretty great place to live. I think we were voted number one in the…something. We’re number one in something. Everyone wants to come live in Howard County,
and the school system is really what brings folks here, to Howard County. Our mission today is really to kind of walk
you through some of the non-traditional Canvas design and implementation that we’ve done
in our district for the past three years. Some of the key things that we want to talk
about are the master-curriculum courses, student-facing courses, student-led communities, how we’re
approaching digital techs, how we’re approaching professional learning, and a really wonderful
project we’ve done this year with [phonetic][01:46] Story Strong. So, a little taste of a lot of things. We’re going at a pretty quick speed. If you have any questions, feel free to kind
of pause us and ask your questions. We’ll first start off with master-curriculum
courses. This is the very first thing we did in Canvas. All curriculum areas were required to basically
create a master-curriculum course for each course. So, if it’s Algebra I, Geometry, Elementary
Grade 5 Math, Grade 5 ELA…we have over 300 master-curriculum courses. Essentially, the master-curriculum courses
house content for our teachers. They’re teacher resources. It provides them with instructional resources
that they can use to guide their planning, to guide their delivery, and their implementation. At Howard County we use the UBD framework
— understanding by design. As we’ve kind of rolled into Canvas, we
were in the midst of this transition of really using this framework. One of the things you’ll see right here
is, we use tabs to really define the three stages of understanding by design. This was based on some of the feedback that
we received from our teachers. In the very first round of delivering master-curriculum
courses, teachers were telling us that they were getting lost. There were too many layers in. They were clicking on a link and it goes into
another link, and it goes into another link, and they were getting lost in all those pages. So, we decided to use the tab concept to allow
them to be able to find things easily within that unit, and still be able to find their
resources all contained in kind of one area. That was kind of a change for us with our
master-curriculum courses. Some lessons learned with our master-curriculum
courses — one of the biggest things we struggle with is that we have difficulty making consistent
updates across the board, with all our courses. We really want to have a consistent look and
feel across K-12. This year, we just started looking — we
signed a contract with the City Labs tool, which is a design tool, and we’re looking
at using design tools to better help streamline that consistent look and easier build, because
one of the things our curriculum folks had to do was learn a little bit of coding, which
was hard for curriculum staff. Really, that wasn’t their primary role. They were hired to be curriculum experts,
and what they’re founding is that now they’re not just curriculum experts. They’re designers, they’re developers
and they’re professional learning folks. That role is expanding out, and we’re trying
to make it easier for our curriculum staff. We really did a lot of end-user feedback to
make adjustments to our courses that we’ve made through the years. You can kind of see versions of our master-curriculum
courses as we move forward. Another big challenge we’re having right
now is accessibility for all the development. Canvas has great accessibility features. However, we still have to train our curriculum
folks to understand accessibility, as far as if you upload a video, it’s not just
uploading a video. You have to have closed-captioning. You have to have a script in there. These are some of the things that we’re
really working with our curriculum developers as they build our content, to ensure that
all content is accessible. The second type of course that I’m going
to talk about is student-facing courses. Student-facing courses are basically materials
that can be handed to a teacher, either through the Commons or through an import method for
our teachers, so that they can have either a complete course that’s built for them,
or modules they can use within their courses. Our SIS pushes out courses to our teachers
so they have a blank shell. Algebra I — if you’re an Algebra I teacher,
you get a blank shell. In there is nothing. What we’re trying to do is either pre-package
a complete course for them, that they can pick and choose what they want to use, or
right now, we’re really just at, “Here’s a module for you to use,” so they can kind
of see some best practices and some exemplary examples they can use and build upon. Our student-facing course has an identifier
right here, with the student-facing icon, because we wanted to make sure, as you can
see, there’s some consistency between what our master-curriculum course looks like, and
these are our student-facing courses. We wanted to make sure that as teachers are
looking through the materials, they understand, “Oh, this is the stuff for me as a teacher,
and this is stuff for me as being able to take and use with my students, and that I’m
able to import and embed right into my blank course shell.” We also build in a little tab concept within
our student-facing courses, because again, based on the feedback of our end-users, they
were getting lost in so many pages. Our master-curriculum courses sometimes have
over 200 pages, because of the heavy content that we have for our teachers. So, as we’re building resources for our
students, we want to make sure that they have the resources they need readily available. The other thing that we’ve done is student-facing
for elementary. Elementary has been hard, because there’s
been a lot of discussion around, “When is it appropriate to use a learning-management
system with elementary students?” We thought this was a pretty neat idea. When we talked with our elementary language-arts
curriculum staff, they wanted to use the quiz feature to build some PARCA-like
assessments — tasks to simulate what they might experience. So, what we did was, we used that tab concept
to allow the students to be able to read a piece of text. The first slide you’ll see is, this is the
piece of text they had to read, and then when they get to the questions, we built tabs in
there where they read the question, and if they forgot what they needed, reference the
text again. Instead of going back to the previous question,
right on that question they’re able to tab over and read that piece of text. If you’re familiar with PARCA, that’s
something that they need to do — kind of be able to navigate back and forth between
these pieces of text, and be able to reference that. That’s been really exciting, as we’ve
built some of these quizzes out for our staff members and our elementary teachers to be
able to use as a resource right away. So, lessons learned with the student-facing
— importing from Commons, and challenges with modifying student-facing course content:
one of the things we learned was that when you push something to the Commons and it’s
already published, it comes in as already published. That was something new for us. We didn’t realize that, and so the teachers
were like, “How did the students know they can take this quiz already?” We thought it was a feature you actually had
to turn on once you import it in, so, it’s little tips like that that we’re learning,
to make things a little bit easier as we kind of progress with using that. Man: [muffled/inaudible] Julie: We did a little bit, but what we tried
to talk with the teachers about is, “This is the content that we’ve given you.” If they want to make modifications, we do
allow them to make modifications based on their students groups and what they may need. Man: [muffled/inaudible] Julie: We have that with our teacher homepage
that we’re created for them. When we made a second round of updates, it
kind of overwrote some of their content, which was frustrating. What we’ve kind of tried to do is say, “Here’s
version 2. Make a copy of this, or put it in there and
make another copy. Don’t use it directly.” Joe: Just a few things. Julie shared some screenshots that had tabs,
and I don’t know if you saw accordions, but we have some pretty Javascript and CSS
in play, so every time Canvas reminds us that they don’t support it advanced CSS and Javascript,
we cringe a little bit, but we use it to make some of those pages look the way they do. The other thing is, with this dialogue we
just had, I think blueprint courses are going to be a real game-changer. She mentioned that we launch about 25,000
blank shells in the end of August, and we’ve done that for the past two years. This year they may not be blank. We may put some things in there, instead. I think that also solves the problem of the
overwriting of the course. We may, for some things, rely less on Commons
and more on blueprint. We’re not sure what our strategy is going
to be just yet, but that’s an exciting development. Julie: The next project I want to talk about
is our digital techs. We participate — Howard County signed an
agreement to participate in Go Open. Essentially our commitment to Go Open was
that we were going to transition from regular techs to a digital tech, using open resources. We selected US History because there are a
lot of resources out there that are open and available to us, that we can access. Another commitment that we had as part of
the Go Open project was really making sure we’re providing professional learning to
our teachers about how to evaluate materials, and really, the licensing piece of things. We talk a lot about Creative Commons, so that
ultimately we’re able to package this and share it with everyone. That’s hopefully where we’re going to
be able to go, but at least with this particular project, it’s been a year, and we are developing
this one US History course that folks would be able to take and use. Our goal is to package it, send it out to
Commons, and others will be able to pick it up. Some challenges we came across in this particular
project — one was really looking at integrating with LTI tools. Two things. One is, as we look at LTI tools and some of
the vendors out there, our school system is really big in looking at privacy, and that
is something that came up for us that we really had to learn more about, and really understand
what kind of agreements need to be in place. Just because something is open doesn’t mean
that it’s not collecting data in privacy, and we needed to make sure that that correct
piece of information is being passed back and forth. The other challenge we have, specifically
with OER Commons, which is what we were looking at, is that while it had an awesome, great
LTI integration, and we can pull it right into the modules and select specific chapters
that we wanted to use to build our own digital techs, we found that as we export that module
out to the commons, and then bring it back into, let’s say, an empty shell for the
teacher to use, the path was lost somehow. The teacher had to actually pick, “This
one’s chapter three,” or, “This one’s chapter four,” and so there was additional
work that needed to be done, which we felt didn’t really help. Once you exported out, something got lost
when you brought it back in. Ultimately, we decided to build in Canvas,
and our entire digital techs is build within Canvas, for US History. We have the text in there, we have quizzes
in there, we have some assignments in there, really trying to provide our teachers with
open resources specifically for this course. If you notice, it looks a little different
with what I showed you earlier, with the student-facing and master-curriculum course. These designs you’re looking at right now
are using that City Labs design tool that we just purchased, which is making development
so much easier. I think it looks prettier and more professional. Lots of nice new features within there, as
well. The other thing we ran into as we were developing
this digital techs was some of the issues like image captions. Especially in Social Studies, we have a lot
of images, and we need to have captions within there. Within just Canvas, we really struggled with
being able to put captions under images. Things weren’t lining up. They were kind of going off the page. I thought I was going to pull my hair out
with all the time we spent trying to streamline it. With the new design tools, captioning is phenomenally
easier. As you can see, it just looks really nice
and professional. It also offers the whole tabs for organization. This was something our teachers gave us feedback
on: “Hey, I need to be able to get to certain chapters, or certain areas, quickly, and so
that tab functioning really supported that.” So, lessons learned with LTI integrations:
they’re not always as easy and we’d like them to be. As you’re thinking through what tools you’re
going to use, make sure you try it from the beginning to end. What will it look like when you export it
out to the Commons and bring it back then? Our challenges with the captions and images,
and then really coming back around to making sure all the content we develop is accessible,
especially within the course of these open resources. So…Crystal’s going to [muffled/inaudible] Crystal: Another exciting development this
year, with our kind of unique use of Canvas — we had a group of students who are in
a leadership course at one of our high schools. They said, “We’re having a problem. We have all of these places we have to go
to get information. We have our group and club and sport Twitter
accounts, their own Web pages, a variety of places to go, but we’re already in Canvas
every day because that’s where our homework is, and we check that calendar all the time. We’d really like to have all that stuff
in one place. Can we do something in Canvas?” So, we went and we met with them, and we took
several months, and the students really led this. We taught them how to run their own community,
so the students, through their leadership course, actually put in all the student activities. They set up groups for all the groups and
clubs that the students self-select and join, and they use that as their main means of communication. We make it available to all of our high schools,
but we really want it to be kind of student-generated, so anytime they want to start one, they just
contact us and we go help them do that. This particular school is really active. They started with a student survey. They didn’t start, originally, with Canvas. They just knew they had a problem, and then
they went from there. So, it’s been a really exciting development. I’ll let Joe talk a little bit about some
of the kinds of roles, and how we enroll and un-enroll and all of that with the student
communities, as well, because that’s something we learned. Joe: When they came and said, “We want to
try and do this,” our first thought was, “Alright. How do you make a student a teacher? How can you let them develop things?” because
students don’t have, usually, permissions to do that. I had to figure that out. We also have some icons that pop up if you
are a teacher. They’re rule-driven, so we didn’t want
the students to see teacher stuff. We do give teachers things that obviously,
students shouldn’t see. So, I just played around with the rules. We actually figured out that an Observer can
do certain things on pages. So, the actual teachers at that school — I
think they build the groups, and a couple other structures, but then the kids, with
this modified student-leader role, which is really based on Observer, they can modify
the pages, and change the pages from there. I think there are somewhere around 30 or 40
of them, out of a population of around 1,300 kids at that school, who do the authoring
and throughout. The other thing that Crystal mentioned is
getting the kids in. With your everyday Canvas class, the SIS feeds
over the roster and keeps it updated throughout the year. This is a little bit of a special case, because
we wanted to feed over the whole school. So we figured out some scripting within the
SIS, which is synergy to get the whole school over and maintain that, because kids are coming
and going all the time — so, to maintain that roster so you always have an accurate
count of what the kids are. That worked fine for the first year, but then
we realized, going into year two, “Oh, the kids are still there,” so we needed to make
a mechanism to un-enroll them all, and then the new group of leaders who want to build
out the new year of the site, they still need access. This is something we built in the SIS, but
we added some buttons that allow us to withdraw all the students around the beginning of August,
so they won’t see the site anymore. The 30 to 40 kids can go to work, and when
they’re ready, we push a button that starts to feed the rest of the population back in. We’re going to try that for the first time
this year, and it should work. It should be fine. Man: [muffled/inaudible] Julie: We also use the groups — is it groups
or sections? Joe: [muffled] Groups. Julie: Yeah. We’re using groups, because they wanted
a way to communicate by the grade-level class. Especially the senior class, they have a lot
of events, and their advisors needed a way to communicate with them, so we use groups
for that, and the students are able to get a lot of their communications that way, based
on their grade. That’s one of the things that worked well. Yeah. [muffled/inaudible crosstalk]Sure. Joe: I forgot to say one thing. Groups are a funny concept. They’re great in some ways, but in other
ways…you can’t enroll somebody in a group, and you can’t withdraw them from the group,
so once they come out of the course, they come out of the group, as well. You can’t re-enroll them. Be careful with groups. This particular school set up a couple dozen
at least — maybe more — but if you un-enroll all those kids and they have to be put back
manually in the groups, that’s a tricky concept. Julie: The other thing to point out about
groups, that we learned this year, was that as students are using it for soccer club,
chess club, all their different events, we realized that when you’re put into a group,
the parents do not see the activities that are happening in the group. There were a lot of parent questions about,
“Well, what are the calendar events?” and things like that, so that’s a little
challenge for us, because parents want to stay up-to-date on those club activities. Crystal: Okay. One of the other ways that we use this is
the professional learning communities. This is kind of the entry point for a lot
of the teachers to get to those master-curriculum courses, so that’s kind of the first place. It’s the way the curriculum offices communicate
with their groups, but it’s expanded beyond just the curriculum level. You’ll see we have on here pre-Kindergarten,
Kindergarten, grade 1, etcetera. We have other professional communities, as
well. We have aspiring leaders, we have new-leader
groups…we have a variety of different ways that people can receive their professional
learning. The way it’s done is, it’s really a page,
and there’s a button that Joe has put in our left navigation. They can go right there and see this whole
page of communities, and they can join. They enroll themselves and un-enroll themselves,
so as teachers change grade levels in different groups, they can do that. One of the ways that our digital-learning
offices approach the professional learning communities is kind of two-fold. One, all of our professional learning we really
push into Canvas. No matter what teachers are learning about,
there’s a presence in Canvas. The teacher participants really appreciate
that, because they don’t have to remember or find that folder or binder that they got
in the session. It’s all in one place, and it stays in their
list of courses. A drawback to that is that they have a lot
of courses, so they really have to kind of manage their dashboard a little bit. The other kind of side to that is that we
offer our own professional learning about Canvas, and there’s a couple of different
ways. One of those is we offer a summer learning
series of free workshops for teachers. They can receive hours towards their certification
requirements that way. We went, this year, with a “taste of learning”
theme, so there were a variety of different options. We kind of looked at appetizers as small samples. One of the things we heard from a lot of teachers
was, “I just want to see what other teachers are doing. I just need some ideas.” So, we spent a lot of time with teachers,
just sharing what they do, and we have a facilitator who kind of runs through that. We’ll do different themes. A lot of teachers want to see, “How do we
do project-based learning, and kind of base that in Canvas?” That was one example that was really popular
this summer. The main dishes are the kind of longer, three-hour
sessions. They were also very popular. There’s a variety of topics, but they’re
all in Canvas. Some are about Canvas, and helping teachers
make things during the summer. We also do desserts, which were a little more
fun: how to make things pretty, and put in new things. Then, we also had takeouts. We have webinars that we offer. This summer, the webinar was a series. It was four sessions, and if participants
did all four, by the end of it, they had an instructional module based on their area that
they could use with students. They really liked learning by doing, so that
was one of the big things that has been successful. We also have self-paced modules that are available
all summer, and all year long, and teachers can do that as they want, reach out to us
for help, and we also are able to provide some credit for that. The CPD — the continuing professional development
courses — we offer up Canvas 101, 102 and 103, that kind of takes them through the levels
of the different features. A lot of teachers coming back from leave have
really appreciated the introductory kind of Canvas. As we’ve rolled out the training, we’re
not really doing it on a large scale anymore, since we’ve had a couple of years now, and
so teachers coming back from leave — which we have a significant number of — have really
appreciated that. All of the courses that we offer, again, are
in Canvas, whether they’re face-to-face, hybrid or all online. All of them seem to run and do a nice job. Also, one of the courses we offer is a variety
of innovation topics, but the end product is that the participants build a module for
use with students. We’re trying to hit it from a couple of
angles. The third thing that we’ve done that we’ve
found pretty successful is to develop more cohorts. One that we started this summer — and we
weren’t anticipating it being a cohort, and now it’s become one — is the digital
leaders cohort. We had a group of assistant principals and
principals who wanted to learn more on how they can kind of drive some of that improving
the instructional use of Canvas in their schools, and they want to continue meeting. It’s been something that’s been asked. They want more sustain in having that small
group, and building those relationships. It’s been a combination of things that we’ve
learned as we went along. The next one is our school community. Each school campus has their own community
in Canvas. This is where they do their school-based professional
learning, and where they have all of their resources. There has been, I would say, a wide range
of use at the different schools, but it does provide a place for them to communicate. One of the best things that we hear that teachers
really enjoy is that they get a weekly announcement letter in their Canvas from their principal. That’s something that’s been able to encourage
some of the teachers, who weren’t very comfortable, to play around and be a participant in their
school community, and that’s helped a lot. The discussion boards are another area that
they really enjoy being able to share resources, ask questions, and some principals even give
their teachers assignments, and they go through and leave them feedback. It’s been an interesting use of that. One of the things that we are starting to
shift more to is providing those modules that principals can then bring in and use with
their teachers, or whoever’s doing the professional learning in their schools, so they can have
more site-based learning. One of the things we’re doing with that
is, as a system we’ve had progressive expectations for the first two years of what teachers should
be doing in Canvas — anything from just having a homepage, and having your information
up there, along with your digital tools and privacy information. We also extended the second year to having
their assignments in ahead of time, using some of the announcement features and those
sorts of things. Going into our third year, everybody’s in
a different place, so we took a different approach. We call that our Canvas teacher-growth plan. We really wanted to think about the three
gears as kind of changing how we approach the professional learning. We spent a lot of time with the “Learn to
Use Canvas.” We stole this from the Este
Standards, by the way. Then, “Using Canvas to Learn,” and switching
into that, and then “Transforming That Learning with Canvas.” You don’t go from one gear to another and
never go back, and so we wanted teachers to understand that. You might use Canvas to learn with kids. You might transform some learning with Canvas,
but you might have to go back and learn some new features as they come out, and that’s
kind of how we’re seeing things. We wanted them to be able to personalize it
a little bit more, so instead of giving every teacher the same expectations of how to use
Canvas, they’re going to be asked to set their own growth goal for the year. One goal, meeting three times — once to
set the goal, the second one to kind of check in, and then the third one to just see how
they did. So, we’re hoping to see a wide variety of
ways that they can do that. One of the big things that came out of this
— and as Julie mentioned, we definitely struggle with elementary schools, and knowing
what’s appropriate, and after talking to a lot of different groups of teachers, not
the least of which was the Canvas point-of-contacts, or POC groups. Each school had at least one, and up to four,
POC’s. They wanted to know, “What should we be
doing?” Instead of saying, “What should you be doing?”
we were thinking, “Well, what do we need Canvas to be able to do?” So, we switched that over to a student-skills
checklist. We did that by grade level, and what we kind
of thought was a good suggestion for the students. A student in Kindergarten is probably not
doing everything in Canvas, but they could launch our splash page, where they can access
all of the tools, and they can learn how to type in their name, and type in their password. You can see that as it goes on, the application
— that green area — by 12th grade, we really want them to be kind of able to navigate
that, to go into any kind of learning environment and be able to figure it out, and know what
the different parts are and how that works. The teachers have found this really helpful. This is really kind of the starting point
for them to set their goal. Not every second-grade teacher needs to learn
every aspect, but they should be able to help their kids get in and see what they need to
see. It also helps, from grade level to grade level. The secondary teachers were all about this. They love the grading and the feedback, and
they would get sixth graders coming in who have never before seen Canvas, and so now
we’re kind of slowly trying to have some of that alignment. That goes along with the school communities,
in that we are creating the module for teachers to be able to do this. There’ll be three options for them to do
it: independently, in small group or as a whole staff. All of those materials will be provided, and
kind of lead the teachers through those sessions of goal setting, reflecting and showing their
growth, and principals will be able to bring that right into their school communities. Some of our lessons learned with our professional
learning communities: creating and maintaining groups. As we’ve all said, it’s definitely complicated
as teachers move and change rules, and we don’t really necessarily have a great solution
for that right now. We’re just kind of handling it. Archiving of announcements — a lot of communities
use a lot of announcements. You don’t want to lose those from year to
year, but you also don’t want that huge, long list, so we’re still looking at how
to handle that. The lack of automated enrollment for the teachers
is definitely a struggle with a lot of movement, and a large staff — and the personalized
with multiple pathways. That’s been something that’s been enjoyed
by the teachers, to be able to kind of go whichever way they need to go, and pick what
they want. I’m going to end on our best project. This is a really exciting opportunity for
Julie and I. We work in curriculum. That’s where it originally existed. We had a problem. We had some recommendations from our diversity
and inclusion committee, that our curriculum needed some improvements. One of the suggestions was to allow for more
student voice. I’m sure we’ve all heard that, and we
know that’s something we want more students to have more of a say in their own learning. So, we came up with this idea that we call
Story Strong. We partnered with the secondary English department
and created a unit where students are able to go through, and within ninth-grade English,
complete this unit and tell their story. They produce multimedia, and we have a whole
website platform. We have a ton of things. Our side — the curriculum side — in Canvas
is that we made all of the student modules — three student modules for three sections
— a full unit framework for teachers to look at…we also included the professional
learning. So, we took a full day of professional learning
to roll this out. Every school will have a representative in
ninth grade do this. We started with a small pilot of four schools,
with ninth-grade teachers, and we had the professional learning all in one place, and
then the feedback option. They were able to give us continuous feedback. One of the great things about it is that we
made a lot of options, so the teachers bring in the whole unit, and then they pick and
choose how they want to do it with their class. They still do modify some of it, and that’s
totally awesome. We love seeing the different kinds of ways
that they do that, but a big thing — the teachers loved to use Canvas, and they felt
like they didn’t have a lot of time to transfer their things over, and to do it well, and
to do it so that it looked nice. So, having this package provided to them,
we got such great, positive feedback. We now have people contacting us all the time
— “I want to do Story Strong. Why is it only ninth grade?” We’ve had teachers say, “Hey, I want to
take Story Strong,” so we actually started a Story Strong continuing professional development
class, so teachers can write their own story, and it’s kind of grown from there. It’s going to go into a variety of different
curricula. Same type of idea. We’re really kind of packaging this thing,
but in a variety of ways so that teachers can customize it. It’s kind of that balance for us to get
good-quality things out there, address some of the larger systemic needs of encouraging
more student voice, and using Canvas to deliver that. Julie: Again, the best thing we liked was
the options. That’s our contact, so all of our stuff
is under Creative Commons license, so we’re happy to share. You can email us, and we’ll talk you through
anything, or answer any questions you have. If you guys have any other questions, one
of us, I’m sure, can help. Yeah? Woman: [muffled/inaudible] Julie: The question was, “How did we get
the students into the clubs, like soccer, football, etcetera?” The students self-enrolled in the groups. The only ones that they didn’t self-enroll
in were like the National Honor Society, which are controlled by the teachers. The teacher, whoever the sponsor was, was
in charge of that. That’s been part of the problem, because
once they’re out of the group, the teacher has to go back and put them in. They felt it was easiest if students self-select
and self-enroll. Woman: [muffled/inaudible] Julie: Not really. Yeah. Any other questions? Mm-hmm? Woman 2: [muffled/inaudible] Julie: The question was, “In the US History course,
do the students work through it in a module?” That’s really more of a — it’s a text,
and the students do have it in a module. The teacher will usually have links to the
different sections on their homepage. That’s where a lot of the students come
in through. They use it in the same way they would use
a regular text in the classroom, and they don’t necessarily go through it step-by-step. It’s kind of a back-and-forth. Crystal: Cool. Thanks, guys. Julie: [muffled] Thank you very much. [applause]

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