Mod-01 Lec-04 Social System and Organizational Culture (Contd.)


Welcome back to the second continuing part
of the last discussion that we are having on social systems and organizational culture.
In the last session we discussed about the social systems, psychological contract, and
role, status within the organization. And in this discussion we will continue with the
organizational culture. Now, what is organizational culture? Organizational culture is the set
of values, norms that the people share within the organization. And which organization,
it is also set of values, norms that the organization develops for itself based on what it wants
to do, where it wants to go or what are its future planning, and everything. So, the culture
the developed by the organization itself is called the organizational culture. It is a set of norms, collection of values
shared by the people and groups in the organization. And, it tells like how the people within the
organization, both as individually and as a group interact with each other, and with
the system of the organization as a whole and also, how the organization in vice versa
will interact with the people on the groups and with the larger environment.
Based on this like, again this organizational culture can be classified into two types-
whether there is a strong culture and whether there is a weak culture. Now when it is a
strong culture, when the organizations culture is very strong, its very well defined norms,
values, expectations are there, and people align their own values with the value of the
organization for the purpose of the better organizational performance, then it is called
a strong organizational culture. But when the organization itself does not
have a very well mentioned, well defined norms and values, well stated values, then what
happens? The each of these subgroups, as we know like organization is there are different
cultural identities, the each of the this subgroups have their own cultures, their own
ways of looking at the things which may be sometimes aligned with the organization’s
purposes, sometimes may not be aligned with organization purposes and may lead to conflicting
situations. So, these type of situation, these type of
culture is called a weak culture where the organization itself does not have any predefined
culture, predefined norms, values of its own. And, all the subsystems within the organization
has their expression of their own cultures and they try to do things in the way they
feel it to be done based on their cultural identity. So, and there is little alignment
of the organizational culture and values, and control is mainly exercised through like
procedural and bureaucracy control. So, what are the, like if we are to develop
a strong organizational culture, what are the factors that lead to strong organizational
culture, how was strong organizational culture develops is a major part of concern. And for
that what is majorly required is of course, we have divided these factors into certain
groups. The major contributing factor is of course, a good communication.
And, the types of communication that contributes in creating organizational culture are: first
if we can see it is metaphors such as comparing the organization with a machine or to the
family, and drawing analogy from each other helps in knowing the employees shared feelings
and experiences of the organization. Stories about how to do; interesting stories about
what to do, what not to do; have the leaders lead have for the perceived about the organization;
these are also helpful in communicating, in cross meeting the values of the organization
to the employees. Rites and ceremonies- these are certain like
combination of stories, symbols, and metaphors, into man like certain rituals done in the
organization, like rites of passages where employees moves into new roles like rite of
abbreviation and enhancement and degradation; or rights of like, in your like improving
existing cultures; and rights of integration or conflict reduction where it is a, feeling
of membership is generated within the organization, it is a feeling of membership. So, these are
different rights performed, rituals performed in the part of the organization. And, these
may help to communicate like what the organization expects of its employees. Other important things are of course, like
comments- reflexive comments that we call. And, these are like the comments between the
formal plans like what you want to do in future, your comments about what you did things earlier.
And, account of those things what you did and comments which like how you are doing
thing in the present. And, fantasy also like thinking creatively may, and trying to explain
like trying to just telling about your thoughts like how you want to see things in future;
and, it reflects the, it is a creative interpretation of the values and goals of the organization. Next important thing is of course, the schema.
The, it is the knowledge structure that the person forms about the organization based
on the past experiences. And, it helps to interact with the new situation in a more
efficient way. So, schema is found; the idea, the basic knowledge is found through introduction
with other people, and communication majorly plays a part over here. The, there are few
important schema is listed. And, first is of course, the self in the organization- where
it is a person’s idea of themselves within the organization- like the, what are the personality
patterns; what are the roles required; what is the behaviour expected of them; this is
self in organization’s schemata. Next we come to person-in-organization schemata
where it is an expectations of the, its person’s memories, impressions and expectation of other
individuals present within the organizations. So, self in organization schemata is the schemata
about one self; person in organization schemata is the person’s schemata about others present
in the organization. Organization schemata is the third schemata which is present. And,
it is general expectation about all others as a whole, present in the organization. So,
it is a subset of the person’s schemata; it is a generalized expectation of all others
present in the organization. Then, concept in organization schemata, this
is the individuals knowledge about the organizational aspects, all other organizational aspects,
other than the other people; means, what is the structure like, what is the design of
the organization, what is the organization rules and regulations. The person’s knowledge
or preconceived knowledge about these things are called organization schemata. Event in
organization schemata is a person’s knowledge of social events within the organization,
what are the social events taking place in the organization. Next, after that we come to the elements of
culture- means certain things which can be used to describe or influence organizational
culture are called the elements of organizational culture. So, the first of the element is paradigm
where the organization, it tells about what the organization is; and, what it does; what
are the mission, vision etcetera; that is been informed like to the people. So, this
is the paradigm. Next is control system- the processes in place
to monitor what is going on. So, when we are talking of like role culture then there be
major rulebooks to define more specific is the different expectations from that particular
role. Then in a power culture it is based on, because it is based on power of the few,
knowledge of a few, then it is based on the person’s reliance on individualism.
Next, other elements are reporting lines, hierarchies, and way which work flows through
in the business. Next is, when we are talking of power structure, the more important is
who makes the decision, how widely spread is the power, like and what is the power,
what is the source of that power; these are the major concerns of the power structure. Next important elements are of course, symbols
which includes the organizational logos and designs. And, it is also representation of
the power in the organization like parking spaces and all these things. Rituals and routines-
sometimes sub meetings are done only because it is a routine job. So, these management
of meetings, board reports, etcetera, because in certain cases this becomes very like, routine
sort of things. Stories and myths is build up about people and events, and convey a message
about what is valued in the organization. This is very important; story telling is very
important for the organization. And, now there is whole gamut of research going on, on storytelling
in organization. How to make people understand what is the expectation of the organization
from these employees, how the organization get to know what are the employees expectation
from the organization, as we are discussing in psychological contract because everything
cannot be well defined if you, in terms; and, it is a very complex form.
So, storytelling is in organization giving examples through which, which will explain
facts, which will tell about the expectations- what will happen if we meet the expectations,
what will happen if you do not meet the expectations, all these are covered under the heading of
storytelling in organization. And, this is a new field of research; very interesting
field of research because it helps us to understand the complex, complexity in the interaction
of the complex factors which interact with each other to, for the better performance
of the organization. Next, when we are coming to the typologies
of organizational culture- means the different types of organizational culture present. So,
there is a whole lot of classification done; classification done by different authors based
on different perspectives; different people have suggested what is an organizational culture,
and what are the divisions of it, based on the certain research ideas.
Here we will try to consider some, like we can start with Hofstede which is dependent
on the national culture classifications; that is a, have the culture of the mission and
based on his study of national influences; and, he gave five dimensions of culture that
is the power distance and, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individual versus collectivism,
masculinity versus femininity, long versus short term orientation.
So, these what happens, these are mainly important, these type of classification is mainly important
for the organization to know the national culture of that particular nation where it
is functioning, so that it will, you can work to find out whether your organizational culture
is proper match with that organizational culture, whether it is with the national culture, whether
your culture is reflecting to certain extent the is in, like it is reflecting as in alignment
with the national culture, whether you can fit, whether you can fit it to that culture
or not. When we are talking of the next classification
which is the Deal and Kennedy classification, you know Deal and Kennedy; what they try to
do is, they try to classify organizational culture based on two things: what is the nature
of the feedback- whether it is very instant in nature or not; and, whether there is a
risk factor involved in the, all the degrees of uncertainties in the organizational functioning
activities. And, they classified organizational culture
based on these two parameters into four different types, like the Tough-Guy culture to Tough-Guy
Macho Culture; then where the feedback is quick and the rewards are high; whether there
is the word hard/ play hard culture that is few risks to be taken; and, all with rapid
feedback; then it is this type of organization is full of jargon and buzzwords. Next is bet your company culture- where big
decisions are taken, but majority, major decisions, results are not known before it is years.
And, process culture where there is little or no feedback. So, you see if what happens
like each of these cultures may have its positives and negatives; what it so happens like, each
culture may suit a specific type of organization. And, like some and it may produce, good ways
are like in public services organizations and all these things. So, these type of organization
culture may be suitable for those type of organizations. According to Handy there are four types of
organizational culture present, like the power culture, role culture, task culture and person
culture. If you see, this is based on the concentration, the center of concentration
of power. And, in that case, if you find like in power culture it is concentrated on very
few people and small group, and it control is radiated from center. When we are talking
of role culture, then people have highly defined roles, and delegated authorities, and with
there is a defined structure. And, the power is there said, concentration of power is on
the role, because the more well defined role it is the better the expectations can be made,
and the people can perform in a better way. When we are talking of task culture then for
teams are formed to solve particular problems, and power derives from the expertise of the
team members. So, it represents like, it also represents the matrix structure of the organization.
A person culture exists when where all individuals believe themselves, a person culture where
individuals believe that they are superior to the organization; which is sometimes, sometimes
which is not good for the organization because the individuals purpose is given more importance,
individuals goal is given more importance than the organization’s goal, and survival
of the organization comes to be difficult. Schein Edgar like iceberg type of model for
the organization where it tells about like the different layers of the organization-
layers which are visible, layers which are not visible, and the upper most layer which
is visible like for the organization, for the people from outside to come and know like
what is an organizational culture is called the artifacts present in the organization
which is absorbed through the status symbols present, the facilities present, furnishing,
visible awards and recognition. Certain visible facts which tells about, which
shows how people interact with each other, how the people addressing these facts- visible
interactions, slogans, mission statements, all these things tells us about the, what
is the nature of the organization, what is the culture of the organization, these are
called artifacts- means things present in the upper just visible upper layer, and people
try to guess about the culture by noticing all these factors. Next level is of course the organization’s
values which you cannot absorb directly by noticing facts, thing, when noticing the environment,
physical environment of the organization. But, what you can discover, by interviewing
people through questionnaires- by asking questions about what are the values, what you prefers,
what you want to do, how you see yourself, how you perceive yourself, what you want to
be in future, all these are the questions help to understand the next layer below the
artifact, the next layer which is called the values of the organization.
And, the next, the deepest layer of the iceberg is of course the, called the tacit assumptions.
And, these are unseen part. This is not discovered in everyday cognitive interactions with the
organizational members. Then these are called unspoken rules- tacit assumptions, unspoken
rules; and, sometimes these are not to be discussed, sort of facts not to be openly
discussed, sort of facts about the organization. And, it is said these are not cognitively
identified also in today’s interaction because sometimes there is a tabling, discussing all
these facts. So, tacit assumptions are very important, important part. If it is understand,
like if there is a alignment of the tacit assumptions and organization values then there
will be a strong culture because what I believe in, that is what I practice or what I tell
others to do; otherwise there will be difference between what I believe in and what I just
tell about myself, what I like show to the world like I am this type of organization;
if there is a gap between the tacit assumptions and values then it, you are maybe artifacts
will speak about certain culture. But when it comes to like you sensing, you having a
feel of the culture in the work place, it may give you a different non verbal queue,
so non verbal communications. So, that gap is there; then it will lead to a weak culture. Carmazzi, Arthur Carmazzi he tried to classify
organization based on different categories. First is of course the blame culture where
people try to blame each other; people try to blame each other and cultivates distrust
and fear because and it leads to nowhere, because it is no new idea is generated, no
new personal initiatives check in because people do not want to take risk over here.
So, what happens, because they do not want to be blamed further efforts that they have
taken. Multi-directional culture is- this culture
cultivates minimized cross department communication and cooperation. So, if this happens then
what happens, each department is critical of the other department. And, that there is
a lack of alignment between input of one department and the output of the other department. So,
if that is known, link in the system, in the fact like one department may act in controvert
with the purpose of the other department, then sometimes it may lead to the organizational
inefficiency. In a live and let live culture then it mentions
a sort of stagnation, it mentions a sort of stagnation and lack of creativity; I will
go in the way that I am like, and organization is not in a position does not want to, does
not like to interpret the signal send by the environment and they do not want to grow.
And, there is an average degree of cooperation and communication, but for the average growth
is not there. People have developed their personal relationships and decided like to
what, decided not to like more contributed organization because they, people here a little
future vision and they have lost their passion. So, that this is sort of, ok, just by the
day and there is a stagnation as a whole. Brand congruent culture is a sort of culture
where people identify with the brand name and they have the, they are passionate about
the brand and demand to identify with the organizational goal. Then they use personal
resources to solve organizational problems and they take interest in the organizational
happenings. And, majorly this culture exists in the level of groups.
Leadership enriched culture- then leadership is the major factor which is enriching the
culture. People are cooperating with each other. The leader is able to motivate the
employees to perform according to organizational goal. But, what is the major motto over here
is that leaders are developing not followers, but they are developing leaders who can just
take of the bitten from them and functioning in the similar way. So, leadership enriched
culture is very important for the growth of the organization. Next where we moving to the, how to measure
organizational culture- one of the culture measures is by Cooke in which we find there
are three, this is called organizational culture inventory which measures twelve behavioural
norms; and, it is grouped into three types of cultures like which is called constructive
culture, passive defensive culture, and aggressive defensive culture. In constructive culture,
what happens? People are motivated, people are encouraged to meet their higher-order
satisfaction needs, and these mainly that of achievement, self actualization, then affiliative
means, humanistic means. Passive defensive cultures are which members believe that they
must interact with others in such way that is not going to threaten their own security.
Then these are like conventional, approval, dependent, and avoidance, type of cultures;
these, these are. Then, the third is aggressive type of culture
in which members like approach the task in forceful ways to protect their own security,
and these are called oppositional cultures, competitive cultures. So, and they are perfectionistic
cultures; these are either they want different organizational members, want different own
status and security through this aggressive defensive cultures.
So, what happens is this if we can absorb like constructive culture, passive defensive
culture, and aggressive defensive cultures, these may have an effect on the organization’s
performers. And, this is, as the, if we can notice like, these are different viewpoints,
these are different viewpoints through which employees are moving; this is certain believe
system by which like, they are trying to approach a problem, they are trying to solve certain
issues. Definitely these different types of cultures are going to have effects on the
decisions made by the organization and the performance of the organization. And also
the satisfaction of the employees within the particular organization, how they interact
with each other and what they, what is the outcome of those interactions. Entrepreneurial culture is the system of shared
values, beliefs and norms of an members of an organization, where creativity is valued,
then tolerance of creative people is there, innovation is given importance, and all these
things. Like dealing with the market situations, dealing with the uncertainty in the market
and competitors threats and expecting organizational members to behave accordingly.
Like, what are the elements? Elements are like people are more empowered to do things,
value creation is through creativity, attention to the basic factors are there, then there
is the freedom, this you can see like, freedom to grow and fail is a major, like defining
may be the defining part of those culture, and more emphasis on the futures, these are
the very key points; we will not like commitment and personal responsibility, all these things,
all these things are very important, but freedom to grow and fail is one of the important issues
in the entrepreneurial culture. Next, like when you are talking, if you, when
discussing organizational culture like culture needs to be transmitted from one employee
to the other employer, one from one group to the other group, and the process which
is responsible for it is called the organizational socialization process. And, it has three stages-
first one is the stage of prearrival stage, and next is the encounter stage, and third
is the metamorphosis stage. So, organization, if you see the prearrival
stage is the stage, it is the period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before
a new employee joins the organization. Now, how this happens, like if you want to see,
like the organizational socialization starts only after the employee joins the organization,
then maybe it is not the correct approach to look into the process of organizational
socializing. Because socializing, this learning starts
from the employee side also, before that employee joins the organization, through different
searches made by that employee about the organization to find out whether there is alignment between
the purpose and the goal of the employee with that of the organization. And, if that is
there, it provides a good feeling and provides the platform for the individual to accept
the values, norms of the organization after he joins the organization in royalty.
Encounter stage is a stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what
the organization is really like. And so you may have in the pre-arrival stage many like
very flying ideas about the organization, mean over expectations about the organization.
But when you come and join the organization, you find like sometimes expectations are not
matching because then this is what is reality and what was projected as reality, there is
a gap between these two things. Metamorphosis stage is a stage in the socialization
process in which a new employee changes and adjust with the work, work group, and organization.
So, this is the very crucial stage in the socialization process. Like, when there is
a strong culture in the organization and the employee, only to the various reasons wants
to stay within the organization, then that person has to change, accept, adapt to certain
things, certain values of the organization. And, sometimes there could be a conflict between
the personal values and the organizational values as expressed, and then this person
has to balance between these two things like, what to give the priority to the personal
values that person who cherished your life or the organizational values. And then he
has to decide for himself like what he is going to do. Based on these stages like, there were different
socialization options like whether it is formal or informal in nature; like, whether you do
it formally from the organization or you do it informally. Individual versus collective-
do you give you socialization individually, one one each individual, or give you socially,
or you give it in a like collective way, like you bring a, give socialization in a group
situation; exercise is varied, the problems given for socialization varies. So, it depends
on the organization’s policies how it is being tackled.
Fixed versus variable- whether there is a predefined fixed procedural of socialization
on the part of the organization, or you vary it based on your needs and nears, and may
be in order to experiments. So these are different factors or the elements of socialization.
Whether it is given in a random order or whether it is given serially that is also another
concern. Another major concern is what you want employees
to do, or what is your idea with the employees? Like, if you want them to shed away the personal
values, their personal likes, dislikes, and preferences of life, and want to get it aligned,
and want to learn, want to function the way organization wants you to function; the more
get aligned with the organization values, then the process of socialization could be
divestiture- means I make you get you read of your personal innovations, personal values
and believes, and all these things; and, make you learn the organization’s way of speaking
and doing things. But if it is investiture then what happens? I like to move forward,
I give importance to you as a person, and see it at a growth and development of you
as a person, and your values are important to me, and I want or I rather help you to
achieve those values in the organization, that process is called investiture. Effective socialization, like when you have
done your socialization then how do you know, like whether you have done a effective socialization
or not; it depends on before we like do you get, based on what are the things that we
learn in socialization. Feedback regarding like what is the content, what was expected
of you to do, so if you, regarding those things are very important; and these four, there
are four, like categories to it. One is the, first is the organizational values- what was
it, what was the goal, what was the culture, clearly defined or not; next is work group
values, norms, and friendships; then whether it is defined how to do the job, what are
the needed skills and knowledge for it; and, what are the personal change relating to the
identify, selves, and motives, self image and motives, these are the four content categories,
like; and, you have to get the feedback regarding each of these content categories, like what
was important to the new comers or part of the socialization processor, what are the
expectations from them. Building on previous studies in socialization
you find over there certain things, wisdoms, like effectiveness socialization will, if
you try to evaluate it will find like whether there is a, people have developed a task mastery,
then whether they have accepted a knowledge, have developed about the organization’s
culture, and whether there is a role clarity; then even they have going for some personal
learning about the organization and the job they are having to, they are supposed to do,
and, whether they are functioning within the work group, all these factors, like mentioned,
defines the socialization effectiveness means, whether you have master your tasks properly;
what degree of it is required; then whether you have accepted organization’s culture,
will again define the strong culture and weak culture; what is the personal learning occurring
from these things; whether the role clarity is been developed or not, will define the
effectiveness of the socialization process. Creating now, in this whole thing, the whole
exercise of organizational socialization, organizational culture, ways of defining culture,
one thing is very important is creating an ethical organizational culture. So, it is
very important to take a review of the organizational processes which are the management practices
which are there for developing culture and give socialization processes, etcetera.
And you have to find that whether the management practices
are promoting ethical ways of doing things.
And, some of this management practices are having a, whether it is function as a role
model, whether you are telling what are the ethical expectations from the employees, whether
you are telling, whether you are giving a training on how to be ethical and all, then
whether you are rewarding ethical acts or punishing unethical ones, and providing protective
mechanism, this is very important from the view point of people viewers.
Like sometimes people out of fear do not report any unethical practices and behaviours that
they have noticed within the organization, because they may feel certain threat. And,
providing protective mechanism helps to like, make, keep that person at certain ease about
the organization believes in most is the ethical situation, the right measures, the wrong measures,
the auctioning. Even if I tell about some of the practices which are going a wrong way
in the organization, and I do not ram the risk of any glass, so that providing a protective
mechanism is very important for people to open up their minds and speak the truth about
the practices going on within the organization. Next is another important way of looking into
culture is creating a customer responsive culture. How it can be done? Is dependent
on the types of employees hired by the organization; then there is a low degree of formalization-
means like whether there is a freedom to meet customer service requirements; then empowering
employees with decision making discretion to please the customer; then good listening
skills on the part of the employees; then role clarity- so that they can act as boundary
spanners and get to read the environment, scan the environment; and then employees lead
to engaging OCB- means they lock the organization and can go some miles extra for the better
functioning of the organization. But, if you see, again may be with very environment
as a whole concept is to, is the concept of ethics is, in order to be customer responsive,
in order to develop a customer responsive culture, like what is the degree of importance
that we will give to a ethical culture, because sometimes in order to be customer responsive,
people may take wrong practices to like, meet the requirements of the customers. So, in
those senses like ethics, the ethics is very, the concept of ethics is very intertwined
with the concept of the customer responsive; when a customer responsive culture, the process
you do it like, it is very important for the ethical practices, along while doing the customer
responsive behaviour is very important, and we just cannot in your this part. What are the related managerial actions required
is- selection of new employees with personality and attitudes consistent with high service
orientation, train and socialize current employees to be more customer focused, change organizational
structure to give employees more control, empower employees to make decisions about
their jobs, conduct performance appraisals based on customer focused employee behaviours,
provide ongoing recognition for employees who make special efforts to please customers.
Now, provide ongoing recognition for employees who make special efforts to please customer
is again, and that this point we have to take into consideration like, what way of effort
should be rewarded; should, what is the domain in the, where it falls like what special,
what do a special effort that the person and the employees take to please the customer;
like, what is important to get the business; what is the ultimate focus of the organization,
like to get the business any how; or, the way that you take to get the business source;
somewhere decisional dilemmas will come and focus on ethics will help to solve this dilemmas. Spirituality in organizational culture like
workplace spirituality is defined by, it is the recognition given that the recognition
of the organization of the fact that employees have their own in our life, and their own
value systems, and higher purpose of life, meaningful that they want to get a meaningful
work, they want to have a feeling of joy from the organization about in it. And, this can
be, if the organization provides this to the, takes care of these human responses and provides
this for the employees, then it has to nurture spirituality.
Now, what like caution over here like, people may mix, may try to mistake like religiosity
and spirituality. These two are not the similar terms. Spirituality is the higher values nurtured
by people, ways of looking into life, aspects of life, your vision about your own life and
what you want to do, and it is not the same as religiosity. Religiosity is the mere religious
practices that we do, but when it comes to the faith, the believe, the higher natural
values may be, all the religions neglect to some common values, and spirituality tries
to discuss about those values are not the religious practices which may vary from religion
to religion, so while natural spirituality and organization culture.
So, certain characteristic of course, are strong sense of purpose like what you want
to do, what you want to be like, then focus on individual development is very important,
trust and openness like unconditional level trust for the employee is very important,
employee empowerment is important because high respective because I trust your empowering-
that is one of the term like one of the very important things of spiritual workplace.
Then toleration of employee expression- again employees may be given a freedom to express
their own mind and the organization culture should be, organization as a whole should
be very tolerant to, like accepting with the open mind what the employees are expressing.
So, tolerance, trust, and empowerment law, these empathy, these are very important points,
important factors of spirituality, developing spirituality, maintenance spirituality, in
the organization, natural spirituality in the organization. When we are talking of organizational culture
and change then we get to know like changing of organizational culture is sometimes necessary
while you are trying to make a change in your business or you are making a shift in all
these things. So, what is required is formulating a vision, strategic vision like what you want
to do, and display as because culture mainly talks of organization efficient; it should
be top driven; the top people should start believing in it, working on it, and will committed
to the goal of changing the culture. Then, it should be, this exercise should be
done in the highest level in the organization. And, here the organization should support
the change is required, and what happens? After the organization changes, you will have
to socialize the new comers on the new cultural set up and the new culture. And, they have
to terminate the deviants and develop ethical and legal sensitivity.
So, these are major concerns when there are organizational culture, and changes are major
issues in situations, where merges acquisitions, things happen. And, different cultures come
together. Some culture accept the major culture, minor culture. And, then if develop the new
company with new face develops a new culture of it is own which could be a reflection of,
mix of both the cultures, or you find one culture getting a major representation, other
culture is not getting so much of representation Whatever is the situations, the people who
are left behind in the organization and who, whom you do not, whom you do not part from
the organization, they have to be socialized again to this new system in the organization
to this new culture, so that they taken accept those culture and they can feel comfortable
within that cultural set up and try to work with the organization. Cultural innovation then includes like recognizing
past cultural differences and setting expectations for change; changing the culture by replacing
the old culture, and so it is very important task to review whether their culture is still
functioning, whether it is effective, whether it is leading to performance or not. Having
a culture and sitting like complacent is not going to help you. In reality the constant,
check constant one, monitoring is required. Whether this culture is well it is very time
viewer that is required; at the present way of functioning, present business that venturing
the culture is facilitating that or not. And maintaining culture includes like integrating
the new culture. The work of integration and learning is very important. Where there is,
if there is a difference between the old culture and new culture, integrating and reviews in
the difference gap is very important. And, establishing the new culture like affirming
it and keeping new culture in space like getting it in grand; and, getting the new culture
in grand also is very important for cultural innovation. And, if these can be done, this
will lead to better performance for the organization. Questions following it like, define organizational
culture. Critically evaluate the different typologies. Define social system. How the
psychological contract affects the social system? What is cultural diversity? Explain
with suitable examples the relationship between cultural identity diversity and work group
functioning. What is role and role perception? Describe a systematic framework for organizational
role highlighting the effect of role conflict and role ambiguity on organizational performance. What are status symbols? What is the significance
of status? What is organizational socialization? State the different perspectives on organizational
socialization. What is the role of learning in organizational socialization? It is very
important to know the role of learning in the socialization process. Critically evaluate
the role of individual in the organizational socialization process, so and state if it
is possible to change culture? If yes, then how?
So, these questions are some complex questions given, where you have to apply your thought
process, maybe you have to move backward for the, between all the three chapters that we
have learnt, to find answers to these questions. There is no straight forward answer. You have
to think and just draw your examples from the real life practices- done in the, for
the companies and try to relate it with these things. And, try to find out, give reflective
answers to these questions. And, if you can do it, then you can understand like the importance
of organization as a social system and more, so the role of culture for the performance
of the organization. Thank you.

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