Topper's Talk: UPSC 2018 AIR 63 Vishal Sah "How to Prepare Social Issues for Mains Examination -2019

hello everyone after a long gap we are meeting again for discussing continuing our series of social issues for means social issues just as we have talked earlier it is a very important topic when it comes to means because of you know questions being asked every year okay up to this time we have in earlier classes discussed about the salient features of FINA society diversity in India role of women and women organization effects of globalization of Indian society population and associated issues was discussed in the last very lecture so today we would be actually talking two important but very short topics and hence you would be taking two topics together and it is poverty and developmental issues so poverty has been something you know that has been very important what we call a topic that has always always been in the political discussion so if you remember that there was a you know very famous call of Garry be hot now by Indra come Gandhi government which actually you know lately led to you know various you know political scientists actually what we call discussing about how Indian government takes you know what we call what you call takes care attacks you know steps to him you know reduce poverty on one hand there has been significant reduction in terms of poverty for example when we talk about from you know at the time of at the time of Independence there nearly half of the population was living under poverty or even more than that however today if we talk then around you know if we see at the latest you know data according to what we call Tendulkar line I believe that it is 22 percent something around that so poverty definition again you know is changes from time poor there are multiple dimension through which poverty is being measured on one hand we have the dimension that we we have what we call what we call we have the NSA so you know data for you know what we call determining poverty on the other hand there are other also organizations such as what we call United Nations and Oxford poverty index you know they comes up with deverson poverty index and what because there is World Bank also which comes with certain you know what we call certain what because level certain income level as expenditure level as poverty index as well as you know their economics intelligence unit come up comes up with what we call Big Mac index which actually tells us the amount of you know what to call poverty that is their duty when it comes to what we call a certain area you know poverty let us start with the class today if after this brief introduction first of all you know I would like to talk about what is poverty okay so poverty if we talk about what is poverty you know what we have to understand that there are two ways in which poverty is usually understood the first one is the the first way through which it is it the first way through which it is in understood is the absolute poverty and the second one it is the relative poverty okay the first one if we talk about the first one it is absolute poverty so basically absolute as the term says is the way of you know what we call defining in which certainly you know what it class of people certain collection of people just data you know lack certain basic requirements you know as a result of which they are unable to live a life of fulfillment for example some basic needs would include food you know what food then you could actually what you call include clothing you know then we can have housing you know what because so all this thing are actually would be call it actually comes under you know what we call absolute poverty so you actually just define a way a single parameter through which you would be measuring the degree of deprivation that is present in the society and that would be understood as absolute property when we talk about the second type of power the poverty definition and it is relative poverty basically relative poverty would include you know what we call a sense of relativity you know so you would be comparing one class of people to the other class and look at you know look I you know you will try to understand how you know what you call how well off one class is with respect to another so basically that would include relative poverty one of the major you know ways through which we actually in vertical discuss relative poverty is you know through which what income level of it you know if a certain class of people you know so if through which that through that we could actually come to an understanding that okay what kind of relative poverty actually exist when it comes to you know government you know planning and everything as I told most of the you know question you must be able to understand why we are studying and how we are going to utilize it in our administration so that will help you rot not only writing a good means answer it will also help you in writing a wonderful you know what presenting a wonderful interview who answer as well so basically if you try to understand why this to you know way of definition exists we can you know come to some kind of some sort of you know assumption we can make some assumption that for example if we talk about the absolute poverty okay if we have some way of you know what we call coming up with a you know what we call poverty line so we could you know easily measure a absolute poverty absolute poverty then could be used in developmental planning which is you know what we call one of the major goal of administration it is also one of the important goals enshrined in our Constitution as well if we go through the directive principle of state policy which from the fundamental values fundamental was a yardstick through which you know what we call a common policy are being measured against so I believe you know that would also suggest that you know poverty of alleviation is one of the major goal of Constitution as well so when we talk about relative poverty relative poverty picker comes into play when there is you know what we call relative poverty could be utilized during development of planning as well for example as a society develops will beat you the dimension through which we are measuring poverty could be diversified initially when what because at the time of before independence our what because the other minor she was one of the pioneer when it came to you know when it came to measuring poverty so according to him he came up with this idea of jail jail jail Inlet people living in jail basically he considered them as a basic level of basic needs that is required for a person to survive and based on that he was able to come up with the amount that is required for a person to ensure that he or she is not living under property now here I would like to give a suggestion to the reviewers that please go through the class Levin book on economic development it is very important book when it comes to poverty and here I would like to request a question to the viewers that please let me know what do you mean by the following statement poverty is a state of mind please let me know what do you mean by this statement poverty is a state of mind so let's move about poverty in India so poverty in India has been something that was a major concern as we talked about since planning you know what we call planning itself the time of you know independence itself so statistics have changed when we talk about poverty in India at the time of Independence it was more than 50% today it is around 22 percent however when we talk about the World Bank Index the World Bank index on poverty says that India faces around 40% of you know people under poverty and so is the case of multi-dimensional poverty index as well it also suggests that more than 40% of people in India are under poverty lines so I would suggest to my friends my dear my viewers that please go through the dynamics the pillars on the basis of which this index are created on the basis of which this index are created and let me know your viewpoint on their measurement so poverty has been something that has been as I say this has been well discussed topic so various committee has been formed to come up with a good idea of what is poverty line or what poverty line is good so it ranges from ykl up committee to lacunae wallah committee to Tendulkar committee and so on currently actually what Planning Commission which has been replaced by the nithya of the basically the nithya yoga has said that vo would be more focusing not on measurement measuring of poverty rather than the difference that we are able to make when it comes to poverty alleviation program so when it comes to poverty let's have look at some of the statistics again which are individual statistic and could be very well used when you are writing some answer I would also request you to go through the deprivation parameter system which is a very important when study done by the NSS oh now I would request you to go through the deprivation deprivation parameter system which the study which was done in what we call national on socio-economic caste census the SECC 2011 was done on various parameter of deprivation I would like I would request you the viewers to go through it and try to learn what are the deprivation parameter that the government considered in the socio-economic class census 2011 so let's move to the statistic part and I would as I said please go through the city economic a census for sure what attack some of the statistic that I would like to quote is that the 50% of Indians don't have proper shelter so here I would like to elaborate on the question that I've asked you earlier and that is poverty in a state of mind so how come you know shelter which is say which we talked about in what absolute poverty is a basic necessity how come it to you changes the way people have access to desirable goals in the society okay so suppose someone doesn't have a shelter basically he and C would be exposed to two natural calamities as well as others form of uncertainty which is not you know which is not present when it when you have a proper shelter proper shelter would introduce you fell you know you do not feel sick more often you do have a place where you could sleep take a good sleep you could or you could engage yourself in recreation you could have a proper social life you could provide your son education daughter education everything actually you know somehow is ready to housing and again if you think that at the end of the day I still have to slip at some pavement then you could actually just imagine how much stress that person would be going through so that actually shows that there are poverty ultimately leads to multiple what we call impact on a person and that is mostly in the form of physical psychological and mental as well so your developmental development of the person living without a home whom would also be less see so that actually so that you know how housing or basic necessity actually impact and ensure that person is either in poverty or not other thing that I would like to talk about is that most of the poor people in India lives in the ruler area so basically it is says that when we are India is represented by the ruler India the villages and if you talk about us a statistics more you know what because when it comes to people living below poverty line are more in the ruler areas so here is a question to the verse that let me know in the comment section that how does being in ruler area and for what kind of relation actually you know occurs from being in ruler areas and poverty I like to to give a hint here that agriculture is the main occupation of ruler India and henceforth there must be some relation when it comes to living in ruler areas and poverty line one of the thing that I would like to talk about when it comes to ruler and urban poverty and it is something that is called as in poverty what he calls the cycle of poverty what actually happens is that of there instead have suggested and I would request you that you go through the now you go through the graphs that has been given in the NCR t class 11 that I have just suggested you would actually see that there has been rapid increase in the there has been some kind of trade-off when it comes to urban and rural poverty poverty seems to have transferred from rural areas to urban areas and as and when you know they live in the poverty cycle in the urban areas and ultimately they come back to ruler areas again with the same amount of poverty so that actually shows that rather than poverty being eliminated somehow the statistics is unable to capture the poverty of him transferred from Hillier to urban areas and vice versa so it's a very wonderful actually what we call a wonderful conclusion that we could draw a wonderful correlation that we could draw after a good analysis of the data that we have when it comes to poverty in India so in the comment section again I would like to know what actually causes the poverty to be transfer from rural areas to the urban areas and still remain there in the poor condition as well it is said again I would like to add to this add some hints to the question itself that there is a vicious cycle of poverty suppose a person is poor so we would be talking about the causes of poverty in the next slide but let me tell you some brief about this poverty being transferred from rural to urban areas there are certain condition which is required for a person to get out from the vicious cycle of poverty for example there needs to be certain amount of income that has to be injected into the family so that he or she died or the entire family comes out of poverty or there should be certain you know what we call education health facility the social security angle social security net that needs to be ensured so that people do not fall in poverty one must note here that it is not necessary that a person might be poor throughout the year there might be you know what we call phases during the entire year we're a people where a person might have to live as if he or she is in under below poverty line because of the seasonal nature of the economy the seasonal nature of occupation that he or she is involved in or the family is involved in so that actually shows that people might be cycling from poverty to non poverty also so when it comes to such kind of scenario one must know that there should be a social security net always if you talk about the social security net ILO report the International Labor Organization reported actually sort the decimal performance of government all over the world in providing social security net social security net is very much important to ensure that a person doesn't fall under poverty line I would like to quote a figure here it is saved at every year and on five black people in India falls below poverty line because of the exorbitant rate of hospital bills that they have to pay again it again one more figure which I would like to quote is that 67 percent of hospital expenditure is out of pocket pocket expenditure in India that actually shows that a huge amount of money would be required when a person get hospitalized there is no special social security net which is quite working functional in a very good manner which is available for the citizen to avail now here I would again like to note that I use Minh Bharat is one of the wonderful program that the government has started however it to take some time for the people especially the poorest x-n to come under the social security net of osman Bharath let's move to the causes of poverty that we would be talking about when it comes to poverty especially in India so one of the first region that I would like to talk about is climatic region climatic region is where plays a very important role here I would like to talk about the report that was generated by there was a report which actually came you could go through the Hindu that actually shows that when it comes to productivity the central region of India multiple days check this curve would actually see the most dramatic decrease in productivity because of the climate change because of the heat insane intensity being increasing and if you talk you know recently I were just going through a report of one of my friend who shared 11 11 out of 14 cities I can are today you know touching the highest or the hottest city in terms of temperature all over the world so that actually shows that the heat the with time the summers is getting more hotter the productivity is bound to increase and not only that a person would not be able to find job he or she might end up you know what we call dead so that actually just you know might push the entire family beyond poverty line but below poverty line climate again you know since we know that around 450 percent of the population in India still today is involved in agriculture and agriculture in India is quite depend upon the monsoon and that is because of the less reach of the irrigation system as well as upper efficiency of use of litigation system is also low so here again I would like to talk about that paradox that Maharashtra which is known to have the highest irrigation potential has what we call regions of highest farmer society and smell farmer society could always be correlated to poverty and actually shows that creating irrigation potential is very much different is not same as utilizing the created potential so it is very much important that you know just like we have social security net when it comes to health challenges we need irrigation or what we call public infrastructure when it comes to agriculture so as to ensure that climate doesn't become a reason for pushing people beyond poverty line let's talk about the other factor and it is the demographic factor when it comes to demography I would like to talk about population of India one must understand that given the large population that India has to support the resources that is available with India is bound to decrease I would like to mention that around you know we only have 2.4 percent of land when it comes to the entire world the land resources however the amount of population that we support including the livestock and so on is around 19 percent so that actually so case the pressure that land resources in India faces due to the high population existing in India so that actually applies to other resources as well so again when it comes to large number of population even the government efforts might get to you know reduce down when it comes to poverty elevation might get very reduced down or might become very small as it reaches to the common people and it might not hence for the prove worthy to push people out of poverty so there is a famous what we call the statistics we say a said out of the 10 rupees spent in India only 1 rupees reaches to the actual beneficiary that actually shows that due to the population with population high you know vertical population density being one of the region that is also being one of the fact it becomes a reason for the low amount or least amount of money reaching to actual beneficiary when it comes to demography not only population the rapid growth of population is also one of the important region which led to poverty here I would like to refer to the last slide a last lecture on population in which I talked about the demographic transition model of population so basically in the demographic transition model if you could remember we had this kind of curve the curve actually the curve had a growth phase and then slope age of birth rate in this region when the policy you know this time is what we call the 1970s the population expanded to such a great extent however the social services all the resources didn't expand it so well so the high growth of population was not met well with the resources growth as a result of which we had this problem of poverty apart from that the average size of family is also something that needs to be taken care of it is said that as the size of what as the size every side of as the size of family increases the chances that a perp what he called the family would be pushed to the vicious vicious cycle of poverty the vicious cycle of poverty is high so let me talk about how this actually would happen what happens in a very big family size is that people when we have this big family size the resources again at the scale of family becomes less so making available education good health to the children become an issue at the same time it is said and it is considered at more number of family members means more earning member of the family so in that perspective a family who is poor might go for more number of children however since the children won't be educated well won't be given proper health facilities they might not become as productive as possible so not to pull the family out of poverty so as a result of which the various vicious cycle of poverty is created which is perpetuated generation after generation so here it actually shows how every side of family impact the poverty cycle here I would like to talk about five sides of family in terms of female household family as well its study was done by dr. Ahmet send that female-headed households have more chances of being pushed into poverty and this is popularly known as feminization of poverty as well so I will request to the I have a Requested do the viewers that please let me know what is the average size of family in India and how does it varies from region to region here I would like to ask the reviewers to take a notice on how poverty in different regions address every side your family has a direct correlation or not let's move to the other factors and it is economic cause of poverty economic causes of poverty is can be considered one of the prominent region however it cannot be considered as the sole reason for poverty economic reason of poverty could include not holding of property land for example given the caste system in India which is again a social factor which I will be talking later you could actually understand how caste system affected the land holding and how people who are not for having land tend to be more poor rather than people who are actually having land so that actually source that the economic factor of not having productivity of not having productive asset is also a region for poverty apart from that I would like to talk about how in a society if the economy the NASA at the national level the if the nation is the national economy is not able to generate good number of jobs it would also lead to poverty as well the national economy at the at the economy at the national national level also needs to be productive as well dish it should be becoming bigger so that a bigger pie is available and hence for the government as well as the people have a bigger share when it comes to returns of such economic growth so when it comes to economic issues especially when it comes to ruler areas as I told you I am requested earlier that please what we call right down the region of poverty being more concentrated in rural areas so here I would like to talk about some of the economic regions of the very same of poverty being more constant in ruler areas the first is a low agricultural productivity and I asked earlier said that agriculture tends to be more important when it comes to ruler areas and the productivity in agriculture is declining day by day decade by decade if we talk about the productivity of Agriculture the curve could be seen as it as a descending curve so that actually shows the productivity of agriculture productivity of Agriculture has declined with time so that becomes a very important region for poverty in rural areas because ruler areas primarily are involved in agriculture the reason why which productivity in agriculture have declined I had requests of viewers to come up with the reason and for a post it in the comment section so that I am able to review it one of the region again I would like to give a hint that productivity has decreased with time because of the improper implementation or the failure of implementation of land reforms other regions I would request the viewers to add in in the comment section as I mentioned earlier also unyk anomic distribution of land and other assets is also one of the reason it is more pronounced in rural areas because rural areas are most casting are the caste based distinction is more pronounced and people are actually you know when it comes to urban areas one could actually so see more mobility in occupation more what we call equal form of land distribution and everything however that is not the case when it comes to roller areas apart from that one of the more important one of the other thing that we could actually talk about is the decline of village industry the village industry when it comes to India has declined since independence with the coming up of major MNC as well government has formed KVIC which is aimed to khadi and village industrial commission it is also one of the two deep ESPN again it is a requested aware set please write down which t PSP I am talking about when I talk about when I refer to khadi and village industry commission so basically government has tried to promote the village industry however given the competition and lack of capital and other resources they have not been able to fulfill the dream or poverty alleviation in ruler areas apart from that the other region that we could talk about when it comes to economic regions it is the immobility of labour many times there actually exists a scenario in which although efforts family might be poor for him or her for the for the member of the family to move from one place to another looking for job might not be possible it could also stem in not having proper education apart from that not having capital to sustain in such region where the labor cost is high is also one of the region which leads to immobility of labour and hence for they remain in the vicious cycle of poverty other thing that is cause of economic reason of poverty is again as I said is the unemployment unemployment is one of the major region of poverty and when the economy is not able to generate good number of jobs especially if here again I would like to talk about the economy serve a definition of good job which actually says that a stable job a job which has social security and is good in terms of remuneration is also paying you good so that is the definition of a good job and it is very much important that we make a distinction between job and good job a good job is very much essential that the economy produces so that the people come out of poverty and remains so without entering into the vicious cycle again let's talk to the next second let's move to the next section and it is social causes of poverty when it comes to social causes of poverty we must understand at what are the social social security net actually I was talking about just few minutes ago and that actually would help you to understand what could be the possible social causes of poverty as I talked about in the social security net one of the reason why people are pushed in poverty again is the health expenditure so presence of what we call a good hood and absence of a good health care system is one of the social causes of poverty especially if we talk about this is skewed you know what we call good way in which the health care system in India is distributed for example in rural areas it is less less number of people actually what we call less to health care facilities is present on the other hand urban areas has better health care facilities so that actually shows again as I said the region which I asked you to mention Weist poverty is high in rural areas that is yet again a region in misses lack of health care facilities is one of the region of high pronounced what we call poverty in rural areas apart from that education is what we call lack of education also becomes one of the important social causes of poverty I would like to mention that the court of Nelson Mandela here Nelson Mandela who is the president of South Africa has famously quoted that education is the most powerful weapon in the world when it comes to its effectiveness in poverty alleviation via KHOU we could also understand this very fact from government emphasis on education as well as the very constitution asking the government directing the government to ensure that education is provided to people especially to the people who are from socially and educationally backward classes so that actually social education is the agent of social change it is very much important that a person experience mobility throughout a generation if it boy if a girl if she's he or she is able to get higher education more than what earlier generation have received the chances that she or he would be employed in a occupation which is more stable is well being and have a good security social security net increases so that actually so that education is very much important and lack of education could cause a person to fell into the vicious cycle of poverty apart from that caste system is again very important when it comes to the social causes of poverty as I've said the caste system used to be the way through which the privileges the things the material as well as immaterial goals of the society were distributed the immaterial goes which included dignity and them and respect and the material girls include assets which distributed according to the caste system and it is say that the poverty is as high as more than 50% when it comes to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India that actually souls then that so caste system has been one of the prominent region of poverty in India the social causes of poverty in India the joint family system is yet again considered one of the causes of poverty in India actually joint family system does provide you with social security at the time of need however such kind of social security is present only when you have some asset and as I said the asset holding has difference when it comes to people belonging to upper caste and people belonging to lower caste so having a joint family when it comes to lower caste become a burden and as a result of which the family size again increases and I have already told you that one of the demographic cause of poverty is large every size of family the resources get much distributed it become minut when it comes to members of the peer family and hence for joint family system in spite of being a good Social Security can push a family into vicious cycles of poverty as well apart from that there are other social causes which we could mention one important thing is the social custom here I would like to talk about the suicide the former suicide which actually happens in some parts of India when we talk about the former Society of course one other prominent region is poverty but let me tell you that government has been very much in what we call adamant when it comes to providing loans for crop and everything however one of the thing that led to poverty when it even in people in even in farmers family who have been availing known is the custom the ritual and custom forces a farmer to go for suicide in scenario in which he or she is not able to provide her daughter a good man as his son or daughter a good level of education and health care facilities so when a person you know you could actually understand this from the various statement at the evolution of human being has been a result of survival of the fittest a person of genuine interest a person intention to be alive is the greatest force on earth when a person is coming to end his life her life that actually shows that such an the that such great force in the earth has been defeated it is a logical end of all the thought process that actually could be anticipated in terms of solving one present issue when a person is balked from loan from outside and the burden of having unwed daughter unwed son all good lack of education inability to provide education health to the family member it actually blows and breaks the person from within and henceforth lead to suicide again one of the rich we could identify that level of poverty that is existing in such an area so that actually shows that social one of the social causes of poverty is social custom as well so here I would like to talk about one other social and he is the banker Gupta according to the banker Gupta it is not necessary that you know what is what the what is he was trying to make a distinction between tradition and modernity according to him modernity is not extravagance we should not be spending so much so on social custom and consider it as modernity there has been proposal of whom bills by legislator Lesley Legislative Assembly as well as Parliament to introduce a limit on the expenditure that actually person has to incur at the time of social customs such as marriage so that actually shows how grave this concern and how big this concern is when it comes to social custom pushing a person or a family to poverty other thing that actually other you know what because social causes that I could talk about it is increasing in depth Ness when you talk about increasing in depth Ness what actually happens is that the poverty cycle become more pronounced person depth is usually passed over to generation after generation when a person actually takes too much of depth he or she is unable to repay it back it tends to pass on to the next generation here a problem of bondage River labor actually comes up in which generation after generation a person is bonded to set work in certain family that demand the bargaining power actually decreases and henceforth the chances that he or she would be coming outside the vicious cycle of poverty becomes bleak so with that I would like to end the process of poverty as I said try there could be as I am divided into four major parts and these are climatic factors demographic factor economic and social factors these are form and regions of poverty let's now talk about the question the poverty our chapter is now you know what we call the poor topic of poverty is now over as I have said that I would I always you know emphasis on better answer right let's talk about this let's discuss one of the question and then we would be moving to what to call the next section and at his development tell his sous when it comes to developmental issues we could actually be talking about various developmental issues that India is currently facing now let's talk about this question and as I said one must I would request the viewers that please write this what we call please write this answer please write the answer in detail in the comment section I will be reviewing it on my own basically let's say the question says that what is empowerment line describe the capability approach of poverty alleviation here again I have used certain graphs and I have suggested for searching for graphs whenever you encounter a topic just go to the Google tied the topic name and go to the image section in he said part that you feel is what we call any simple graphs which you could feel that it explained the concept very well it could be utilized when it comes to the very topic that we are discussing about so the definition of empowerment mind is that it is the amount of estimated minimum level of income that is needed to secure minimum necessity the basic necessities of life so here I would like to talk about a give reference to the graph that we had that I have used see the it talked about the official it's so that official poverty line and the empowerment line so poverty line is something that is you know below which a person would be actually poor any person who is living below this would be actually poor however empowerment line goes a bit ahead so this amount of you know this very small fraction or this gap is what is the amount of wit what we call a amount of payout amount of income that has to be provided to every every family and here the empowerment gap actually you know so kiss the per capita what we call the amount that is to be provided to each family multiplied by the number of family through which we have come with the empowerment gap so that actually shows that how much amount would be required for the entire population to bring them out of the poverty so that actually shows that empowerment line sorry empowerment line goes a bit above poverty line and poverty line just tries to measure the amount of basic necessities that is required empowerment line would go further ahead in terms of the amount the minimum income that has to be provided so that a person family rises about the what we call a poverty line and it stays there for long so from this graph as it is sewed it actually shows the empowerment line in India one must note that this very concept was provided by the mccune ski and code that the idea of empowerment line apart from that as we are talking about empowerment line I have to talk about the capability approach of poverty alleviation as well when we talk of poverty elevation approaches varies from society society society and nation to nation and the capability approach of poverty alleviation was provided by our own very economist dr. Ahmet Sain who got nobel prize in economics the capability approach basically talks about providing resources to the individual so that he or she is able to utilize you know develop capabilities and make choice the you know increasing the choice if so basically it works from two different end if there is a person it a person is to here okay so basically what the comment from the government and he or she should be provided with more resources health education better what we call better internet connectivity better housing all these resources better land resources has to be provided and then the choices should be improved when the resources could be utilized only when the choices is a choices exist a person should be given the choice to take education or take a skilling activity of his own or her own choice that will lead to what we call generating income productive income and all functioning of the society and henceforth that would lead to poverty alleviation so that I have given a brief snapshot of what exactly capability or approach of poverty alleviation means this basic diagram which can be utilized when it comes to the capability approach of poverty alleviation apart from that apart from noting down this what we call answering this question I would like the viewers to think I hate thinker you know what we call a step more apart from the stability approach and think why this demographic and the time of reaping demographic dividend this idea of providing good health good education actually good information why it becomes so important so one must be able to you know if you think you know in this line and you once you understand the capability approach you'd actually understand that how reaping the demographic dividend quiet have a similar approach when it comes to capability approach of poverty elevation as well with this question discussion let's move to the next question next chapter and it is developmental issues next topic of society or in your society and it is developmental issues the development is a development is a process development basically you know includes a process in which it we try to move for others we try to better the standard of living here again I to talk about the finance ministry budget last year which actually talked about age of living from age of doing business people are now moving towards age of living so development and issues if it remains the age of living is bound to be at a lower skin so here I would like to talk about prominent developmental issues in short the first developmental issue that I would like to talk about his sustainable growth sustainable developed a sustainable development again has his defined as a development or a growth in which the needs of the present generation is met without compromising the needs of the further generation as well it is was the definition which was provided by the Brundtland Commission which was appointed by the United Nations organisation here again I would like to make a distinction between growth and development as well growth food family mean economic growth development is where growth as well as redistribution is taking place redistribution ensured that the lower strata of the people the lower strata of the society are also the simul are similar stakeholder are equitably placed so that the death growth benefits passes down to them as well so sustainable growth would be defined as a growth which is can which could be sustained for a longer period of time it is actually you know providing two benefits to the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generation as well here I have a request to the fears that please try to learn more about sustainable development especially the social economic and social economic and cultural dimension when it comes to sustainable growth let's move to the next and that is inclusive growth inclusive growth basically it means that a growth which as I said is able to reach to the people you know it is able to keep everyone as their stakeholder the 12th five-year plan which was the last five-year plan that the government of India came up with had this keyword used inclusive growth faster sustainable and inclusive growth inclusive growth as I said ensures that the benefits of the growth is passed down to every section and in India given the amount of inequality inclusive growth would mean that greater benefits from the growth is passed down to the lower strata as well here I have a request to the veer said let me know inclusive growth index which organization come up with the inclusive growth index and how India is performing on such a index the next challenge that curves the developmental issues that India is facing it is a demographic dividend here I would like to talk about the demographic dividend and demographic eco what basically this dividend says is that when there is a favorable demography favourable age structure where the dependent population is reduced and the working is population increase which in India is around 65 percent is or the total population what actually happens is that with the amount of investment increase the amount of purchasing power increase with which actually which fuels the growth so demographic the femoral demographic could be reaped as a dividend however there is an idea of demography eco as well demographic burden as well in which when the comment when the nation is unable to reap the demographic dividend it becomes a burden in which there is a greater number of unemployed youth there is huge amount of unrest the political system is more polarized and so on so that actually leads to demographic burden and latter on demographic eco in which the window that was to be utilized the carnation is unable to utilize and it becomes an issue for it forever the average per capita income becomes a stagnant and drastically decreases when demographic dividend is not utilized let's move to the other developmental issue and it is inflation control in place and it is popularly known as reiji average rise in prices so inflation control is very much important because when it comes to inflation in an economy if there is higher amount of inflation the lower strata of people could not what we call they their expenditure increases as a result of which the basic necessity becomes more costly for them to effort here again I would like to talk about that the inflation is considered as a lubricant in economy certain amount of inflation is desirable especially somewhere around 4 to 6% a 2 to 6 percent which actually is the what we call the scale the what because the range which the monetary policy agreement between government of India and RBI and the monetary policy committee has been given the responsibility to keep that in risen in that range which actually required for the economy to grow certain degree of inflation ensured that the credit is available at a ok rates there is huge demand as well the demand will push the inflation a demand will ensure that what we call there is there what we call the economy sustained the production is high and henceforth some amount of inflation is bound to act as a lubricant but again a very high amount of inflation corrodes the growth and it makes impossible for the lower strata of people to avail the basic necessity here again I have a request of users to viewers that let me know about the existing monetary political monetary policy committee and what are its mandate let's move to the next to developmental issue which actually exists is rapid urbanization India as a country is moving towards rapid urbanization rapid urbanization actually becomes associated with multiple issue when it is unplanned here I would like to talk about the planning and development of new Mumbai in which it took around ten years for the very what we called planning to appear in the paper itself during that time what we call multiple unplanned organization took place and henceforward because three were raised green green spaces for the urban people better health facilities traffic and everything could not be well planned and hence for what urbanization which actually provide huge benefits to the people who are migrating it become a pain for the very people who have migrated they are unable they face health issues they are unable to travel from one place to another and that is because of rapid urbanization that takes place during developmental period so here the government has actually come up with policies such as smart City Mission and individual estate as well has various mission to understand ensure that the development of planning ensure what we call steady urbanization urbanization which is well planned and hence for what the people who are going for what we call urban center get the maximum benefit out of it next developmental issues that India faces is land reforms one must know that land reforms that were implemented that were introduced after the independence actually was a failure in multiple states some of the state is actually you know turn out good however in most of the northern state it acts actually was a failure due to which there is he huge inequality when it comes to land holding I must what we call mentioned the statistics of land holding and that is 85 percent of land holdings are still small and marginal land holding small and margin and land holding means two hectare or less of land holding being what we call help by a person or family due to which land reforms you know failure of land report has led to low agriculture productivity as well industrial scale or manufacturing which require large agricultural farms to supply certain goods is not possible contract farming and everything you know other what we call reforms that could be actually introduced in the latter stage we are not possible only because the initial stage of land reforms such as limit on land selling redistribution of land was a total failure here I would like to talk about the closing of land department in land reform Department in state of Bihar when the or when after acquisition of land that the the department was unable to dispose of land to the needy people who would be requiring and who has no land with them so failure of land reforms and yet again what we call implementation of further land reforms is a developmental issue here I would like to talk about the emerging technology which could be utilized to ensure that land reforms takes place very well as I have talked about in the first class as well the prototype to tackle any social issues is to provide technological solution here I would like to talk about the state of Andhra Pradesh where they are performed they are trying to utilize the blockchain technology to provide land title's land titling is very much important here I would request the viewers to look go through what is land titling and how much importance does it play when it comes to land reforms in India what happens is the transaction is recorded whenever land you know what you call land changes ownership changes hand from one owner to other owner such is recorded however there is no clear titling which has been recorded or which actually exists with the comment so that actually hinders the implementation of land reforms and further reforms which actually is based on land as a resources here again one more request of the veer said please let me know what do you underst by the blockchain technology and apart from tightening land titling what other areas where land what we call blockchain technology could be utilized the next challenges which occur is the center state dynamics one should know and one I might be already knowing that India is a federal form of government where independent governance structure exists at Center and state as well here I would like to talk about the instance of the Bihar which has you know we just considered a beam arrest rate however I must say that it today it is performing really well however the center state dynamics at the time after independence actually resulted in lack of development in Bihar in the initial years the center state dynamics there needs to a certain degree of cooperation when it comes to poverty elevation or developmental price in program implementation in state if there is discordant relation between center estate it is bound to what we call lead to failure of developmental programs so as one knows that state a lot of time especially during the initial finance Commission's recommendation were not able to generate sufficient amount of resources more resources were provided by the center and henceforward their developmental policies were tied by the center dictate dictation many at times so it was favorable when same party forms coming at the center and state so as to ensure that developmental policies are well implemented however that was not the case when it comes to for example the state of Bihar and we have seen how it has lagged in terms of development other developmental issues that we could actually talk about is alternative fuel alternative fuel is very much important because of the hue and cry when it comes to global warming as well as pollution we have to ensure that the ecology is saved the environment is safe and for sustainable development it is very simple that we bring alternative fuel however challenges remain when it comes to alternative fuel because of there is a vertical inertia in terms of adaptation the cost is high the related technologies are not well developed and henceforward alternative fuel become a problem when it comes to adoption and its steady increase in the share of power power electricity generation when it comes to India we can always talk about other developmental issue as well and I request the viewers that please write about other issues that you think is a hindrance to the development process in India let us move to the last section of this chapter of the developmental issue and we would be as usual discussing a mains question to frame an idea on how to write a question when it comes to developmental issue as well the question is what is sustainable developmental goals comment on India's progress toward reaching the first three SDG here again I would like to give you a pro tip and that is one must go through the 17 sustainable development L goal and must have an idea that what each goal entails that actually will help you a lot when it comes to what we call writing a main sensor that actually will you know what we call give you an understanding that will actually so case that you are able to relate what you are studying with the developmental goals the sustainable developmental goal which has been framed at a global scale so as I said you could start with the definition of SDG and then for this very question you have need to know what are the first three SDG I must say that the first three is to eg include sustainable developmental goal one that is zero poverty sustainable development goals second is zero hunger and sustainable development goal three is good health and well-being for more what we call a better understanding of the first three goals which are pretty much important I would request to go through individual targets of this goals – for example no poverty will also have certain but because subsection certain sub goals which has been set for the entire you know nation all set of nations to achieve at global scale so on the first three SPG if you are able to know that what are the first three stt you could actually comment on India's progress with respect to the first three SDG one must know that the sustainable development our goal is aimed to be achieved by 2030 so this progress would actually help you evaluate the standing the level of preparedness of India to reach the first three sub sustainable development Elcor at present of time let's discuss the sustainable development l gold at his first goal that is no poverty at this stage still India you know tends to have around 22 percent of poverty or 22 percent of existing poverty of the total population so it is very important that poverty and division programs are given renowned edge so that we are able to sail across and able to achieve the goals by 2030 other thing that you could actually you know put in what we call progress is that you could actually come up with figures showing statistics on how things are changing from 2015 to 2030 that is because initially before STG we had this idea of mini naeun developmental goals as well and you should be proud that India has been able to achieve the Millennium Development Goals so if you are able to come up with statistics then you would be able to focus how India has been doing on the first three SDT one must note that nithya yoga is the authority responsible is the what we call body responsible to ensure that India reaches is sustainable developmental goals with this I would like to end the lecture we would be meeting tomorrow with urbanization and it associated issues to discuss in the next lecture till then thank you and goodbye

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